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Comment: Updated lnks and text in section on "The OpenSim Model"


Additional information is also available in the section on OpenSim Models. A large repository of existing models is available at ( This library includes (see curated list or do a search on SimTK ). These include models of the lower extremity, head and neck, spine, wrist, and wristand many other musculoskeletal regions for both humans and other animals. We encourage you to contribute your own models to this library SimTK to enable other researchers to build on your work and further advance the field.

A model consists of different components. For example, in a model used for the simulation of human walking, the bodies represent the geometry and inertial properties of the body segments. The joints specify the articulations at the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle joints, while a constraint could be used, for example, to couple the motion of the patella with the model’s knee flexion angle. The forces in the model include both internal forces from muscles and ligaments and external forces from interaction with the ground. Finally, the model’s controller determines the activation of muscles (e.g., computed muscle control).