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Brief DescriptionAuthor(s)Intended Uses and Known LimitationsLicenseUpdatedIncluded MaterialModel Forerunners
Upper Extremity Dynamic Model A right upper extremity dynamic model representing the anthropometry and force-generating capacity of the 50th percentile male. Katherine Saul, Xiao Hu, Craig Goehler Meghan Vidt, Melissa Daly, Anca Velisar, Wendy MurrayResearch-grade kinematics and dynamic simulation of shoulder and arm movement.MIT July2014Detailed description of the model, two versions of the model (OpenSim and SIMM/SDFast compatible)Stanford VA Upper Limb Model

Lower limb model 2010

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Model Description

Lower limb model with updated musculoskeletal geometry for the lower limb based on experimental measurements of muscle architecture in 21 cadavers. Edith Arnold, Richard Lieber, Scott Ward, Scott DelpResearch-grade kinematics analysis, and simulation of 3-D locomotion and other movements. Results may be inaccurate during motions with high degrees of knee flexion. The model can be used for dynamics analyses, but computation speed will be slow due to the large number of wrapping surfaces.CustomSep-11Detailed description of model and adequate instructions for use. Custom Matlab code for generating SIMM muscle model.Arnoldetal2010_2Legsv2.1.osim,

Arnoldetal2009OneLeg (SIMM)

Delp leg Model (SIMM)

Full Body Running Model

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Model Description 

Legs, trunk and arm segments (with inertial properties). 37 degrees of freedom, 30 muscles of the lower body, torque actuated armsSam Hamner, Ajay Seth, Scott DelpResearch-grade kinematics analysis, dynamic analysis, and simulation of 3-D locomotion and other movements. Knee joint load estimates are known to be inaccurate during motions with high degrees of knee flexion. The upper body is simplified (minimal muscle actuation and torque-actuated arms).Custom. See the model's Simtk project page.Jul-10Detailed description of model and detailed instructions for use.


Upper and Lower Body Model Combination of the Delp Leg Model and Holzbaur Upper Limb ModelAndrea MenegoloProvide a starting model to those interested in a full body model.noneSep-11Model and brief descriptionDelp Leg Model,
Stanford VA upper limb Model
London Lower Limb model

Unilateral lower limb model based on the data set published by Klein Horsman et al., Clin Biomech, 2007. Includes pelvis and right leg bodies (with inertia) and 38 muscles (represented as 163 muscle actuators)Luca Modenese, Andrew PhillipsLower limb model implemented to estimate the contact forces occurring at the hip joint during activities of daily living. The model can be used for static optimization simulations without including the muscle force-length-velocity relation.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-11Description and adequate instructional material.
Custom Hip ModelModel based on Gait2392, Lower and trunk bodies (with inertia), updated muscle parameters matching previously published research.Kevin ShelburneResearch on motion and muscle function at the hip joint. Can be used for dynamics analysisCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Aug-10Instructional materialGait2392_simbody
Thoracolumbar spine and rib cage.Male and female versions of fully articulated thoracolumbar spine (T1 through L5) and rib cage, plus pelvis, lumped head and neck, and upper extremities, includes 93 degrees of freedom, and 552 muscle-tendon actuators.Alexander Bruno, Dennis Anderson, Mary Bouxsein, Hossein Mokhtarzadeh, Katelyn Burkhart.The model is validated for determining estimations of spine loading and muscle activations via Static Optimization.MIT


Models, geometry files, example motion file, description of differences between male and female models.Lumbar Spine Model, Neck Mechanics Model, Stanford VA upper limb model
Lumbar Spine ModelLumbar bodies and torso containing 3Dof and 238 muscle fascicles.Miguel Christophy, Nur Adila Faruk Senan, Moe CurtinResearch-grade kinematics analysis, and simulation. Due to no inertial properties for the bodies, this model is inappropriate for dynamics analysis. Only LumbarSpineC4 is usable in OpenSim 3.1.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Nov-10Geometry, examples, editing instructions and Matlab code.LumbarSpineC210, LumbarSpineC4
Rat Hindlimb ModelA rat hindlimb musculoskeletal model including geometry (with interia) and muscle physiology. Will JohnsonResearch on Rat musculoskeletal kinematics and muscle functionCommons CCBBY 3.0Jan-09

Chimpanzee HindlimbA unilateral three dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. Brian Umberger, Mathew O'Neill, Leng-Feng LeeModel used to estimate the force- and moment-generating capacity of the major pelvis and hind limb muscles in the chimpanzee.MIT licenseNov- 13Model, Geometry files.
Full Upper and Lower Body Model

A refined human musculoskeletal model suitable for analysing movements involving substantial hip and knee flexion such as cycling, sprinting and rowing.

Adrian Lai, Allison Arnold, James WakelingThe model was generated when we encountered anomalous co-activation in the hip and knee flexors during muscle-driven simulations of pedaling due primarily to excessive passive fibre forces in the extensor muscles.MIT licenseOct-17Three models (lower limb only, torso, torso + arms), Geometry filesRajagopal2015
Oculomotor Model

A biomechanical model of the human eye containing 3 degrees-of-freedom and 6 muscles. The muscle activation patterns of saccadic movements are calculated using a closed-loop fixation controller.

Konstantinos Filip, Dimitar Stanev, Konstantinos Moustakas

Research-grade kinematics and dynamics analysis, investigation of muscle activation patterns during saccadic movements and static fixation, simulation of eye disorders. The model is based only on the passive and not the active pulley hypothesis.

Creative Commons CC BY 4.0Apr-20

Models, geometry and texture files, detailed documentation,

plugin release of the fixation controller, source code, simulation results.

Kinematic Arm Model with Articulated Hand

A right upper extremity kinematic model adapted from the “Upper Extremity Dynamic Model” with 20 degrees of freedom added to the hand. The model is scaled to a 50th percentile human being.

Matthew Yough, Russell Hardesty, Sergiy Yakovenko, Valeriya Gritsenko

Research-grade kinematics of shoulder, arm, and hand movement. The model contains no muscles.


Model, geometry files, and description of the model and its uses.

Saul et al. 2015: Upper Extremity Dynamic Model

SIMM Models

Models contributed by members of the SIMM community as SimTK projects. These models are maintained by the authors listed.