Millard, M., Uchida, T., Seth, A., Delp, S.L. Flexing computational muscle: modeling and simulation of musculotendon dynamics. ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 2013, 135(2). Download PDF Document

Thelen, D.G. Adjustment of muscle mechanics model parameters to simulate dynamic contractions in older adults. ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 2003, 125(1):70–77. Download PDF Document


The following sections contain more information about each of the muscle models included in OpenSim: