The Full Body Running Model is a three-dimensional, 29 degree-of-freedom computer model of the human musculoskeletal system.  The model was developed by Samuel Hamner, Ajay Seth, and Scott Delp of Stanford University. Featuring 92 musculoskeletal actuators of the lower extremities and torso and dynamics of arm motion, the model was originally developed to study how muscles contribute to the propulsion (forward acceleration) and support (upward acceleration) of the body’s center of mass during running. 

The model contains 12 segments and 29 degrees of freedom, and is a modified and expanded version of the Gait 2392 model (see Gait 2392 and 2354 Models). Like the Gait 2392 model, each lower extremity in this model has 5 degrees of freedom; the hip is modeled as a ball-and-socket joint with 3 degrees of freedom; the knee is modeled as a custom joint with 1 degree of freedom (Seth et al., 2010); and the lumbar motion is modeled as a ball-and-socket joint with 3 degrees of freedom (Anderson and Pandy, 1999). To study the arms’ contribution to the propulsion and support of the body’s mass center during running, idealized torque-actuated arms were added to the original Gait 2392 model. Each arm consists of 5 degrees of freedom; the shoulder is modeled as a ball-and-socket joint with 3 degrees of freedom; the elbow and the forearm rotation are each modeled with a revolute joint with 1 degree of freedom (Holzbaur et al., 2005).

The project also includes a running simulation generated in OpenSim. The default marker trajectories, ground reaction forces, and moments that come with package are recorded from a healthy male subject (height 1.83 m, mass 65.9 Kg) running on a treadmill at 3.96 m/s (6:46 miles/min). 41 reflective markers were placed on the subject’s anatomical landmarks during the experiment to scale the model to the subject’s anthropometry. See the project page for more information.

Associated Publications

Hamner, S.R., Seth, A, Delp, S.L.: Muscle contributions to propulsion and support during running. Journal of Biomechanics, 2010. (Download PDF)

Delp, S.L., Loan, J.P., Hoy, M.G., Zajac, F.E., Topp E.L., Rosen, J.M.: An interactive graphics-based model of the lower extremity to study orthopaedic surgical procedures,  IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 37, pp. 757-767, 1990. (Download PDF)

Yamaguchi G.T., Zajac F.E.: A planar model of the knee joint to characterize the knee extensor mechanism." J . Biomech. vol. 21. pp. 1-10. 1989. (Download PDF)

Anderson F.C., Pandy M.G.: A dynamic optimization solution for vertical jumping in three dimensions. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 2:201-231, 1999. (Download PDF)

Anderson F.C., Pandy M.G.: Dynamic optimization of human walking. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 123:381-390, 2001. (Download PDF)

Holzbaur, KR, WM Murray and SL Delp, 2005. A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control. Ann Biomed Eng 33(6): 829-840. (Download PDF)

Seth, A., Sherman, M., Eastman, P., Delp, S., 2010. Minimal formulation of joint motion for biomechanisms. Nonlinear Dynam. 10.1007/s11071-010-9717-3. (Download PDF)