A model was constructed to represent the moment-generating characteristics of cat neck muscles. This model consisted of four components: bone geometry, muscle geometry, muscle force-generating parameters, and joint kinematics. The surfaces of the skull, C1-C7, and T1 were digitized from a single cat cadaver. Muscle paths of the rectus capitis posterior major, complexus, biventer cervicis, occipitoscapularis, and splenius capitis neck muscles were defined using bony landmarks as references. The origin and insertion of each muscle were defined as well as any intermediate points necessary to accurately represent the muscle paths over a range of head-neck positions. Muscle architecture was used to define the muscle force-generating parameters, and cinefloroscopic data was used to measure the joint kinemetics. This model was used together with experimental data to study the control of head movement.


Sagittal view of the cat neck model.

Associated Publications 

 Keshner, Statler, and Delp. "Kinematics of the freely moving head and neck in the cat."Experimental Brain Research, 1997. (Download PDF)