Just as interactive graphics have enhanced engineering analysis and design, graphics-based musculoskeletal models are effective tools for visualizing human movement, analyzing the functional capacity of muscles, and designing improved surgical procedures. The OpenSim team, along with researchers in the wider community, have created computer models of many different musculoskeletal structures. Learn more about these models below:


MODEL AUTHORS: Please feel free to update the model matrix with improved information. If you have an OpenSim model that you'd like to add to the list, please contact us at opensim@stanford.edu.

OpenSim Core Models

Models included with the OpenSim distribution and supported by the OpenSim team.

Model Brief DescriptionAuthor(s)Intended Uses and Known Limitations LicenseLast Updated

3.2 Compatible?

Included MaterialsModel Forerunners

gait2392_simbody

Get the Model: Included with OpenSim

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Model Description

Primarily lower extremity model with two legs and a lumped torso segment. Includes 23 degrees of freedom and 92 muscle-tendon actuators.Ajay Seth, Darryl Thelen, Frank C. Anderson, Scott L. DelpSimulating and analyzing human movement that is dominated by lower extremity muscles. Results may be inaccurate during motions with high degrees of knee flexion. The model can be used for both kinematics and dynamics analyses.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesWalking data, example set-up files

Delp Leg Model (SIMM)

gait2354_simbody

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Model Description

Primarily lower extremity model with two legs and a lumped torso segment. Includes 23 degrees of freedom and 54 muscle-tendon actuators. Ajay Seth, Darryl Thelen, Frank C. Anderson, Scott L. DelpSimulating and analyzing human movement that is dominated by lower extremity muscles. The model can be used for both kinematics and dynamics analyses.Results may be inaccurate during motions with high degrees of knee flexion. The number of muscles in the model was reduced to speed simulation time for education and initial simulation prototyping. The model is used in Tutorial 3 - Scaling, Inverse Kinematics, and Inverse DynamicsCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesWalking data, example set-up files, reference simulation results

gait2392_simbody.osim

 

gait10dof18musc

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Trunk, pelvis and leg segments. 10 degrees of freedom, 18 musclesAjay Seth, Darryl Thelen, Frank C. Anderson, Scott L. DelpThis model is a simplified model focused on the lower extremity. It demonstrates the use of the new Millard muscles in OpenSim. It is intended for education, demonstration, and for initial prototyping of simulations when fast simulation times are needed.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesWalking data, example set-up files, reference simulation results

gait2392_simbody.osim

leg6dof9musc

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Single leg, pelvis, femur, tibia, foot. 6 Degrees of Freedom, 9 musclesAjay Seth, Darryl Thelen, Frank C. Anderson, Scott L. DelpThis model is a simplified model focused on the lower extremity. It demonstrates the use of the new Millard muscles in OpenSim. It is intended for use in examples, including The Strength of Simulation: Estimating Leg Muscle Forces in Stance and SwingCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesWalking data, example set-up files, reference simulation results

gait2392_simbody.osim

ToyLandingModel

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Trunk, pelvis leg and AFO segments. 23 degrees of freedom, 34 muscles. AFO model can be provide bushing forces and stiffness propertiesAjay Seth, Matt DeMars, John Rogers, Scott L. DelpThis model is intended for education and demonstrations. It shows how to define contact surfaces and define an AFO and controllers as part of a model. See Simulation-Based Design to Prevent Ankle InjuriesCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesExample set-up files and detailed instructionsgait2354_simbody.osim

Arm26

Get the Model: Included with OpenSim

A right upper extremity model with 2 degrees of freedom and 6 musclesJeff Reinbolt, Ajay Seth, Sam Hamner, Ayman HabibThis is a simplified model of the extremity, intended primarily for education and demonstrations.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-08YesMovement data, instructions for use, and example scriptsStanford VA Upper Limb Model

Tug_of_War

Get the Model: Included with OpenSim

 

Simple model with two muscles pulling on a 1-dof block for a simulated tug of war.

Models that implement both Thelen and Millard muscle types are provided

The OpenSim teamSimulation for students to explore differential equations that describe muscle activation and muscle–tendon contraction dynamics of Hill-type muscle model. See Pulling Out the Stops: Designing a Muscle for a Tug-of-War CompetitionCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesMovement data and example set-up files 

wrist

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A 10 degree of freedom, 23 muscle actuators,  model of the lower arm.Robert Gonzalez, Thomas Buchanan, Scott DelpThis is a simplified model of the wrist, intended primarily for education and demonstrations. See Tutorial 2 - Simulation and Analysis of a Tendon Transfer Surgery.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-08YesMovement data and instructions for use 

bouncing_block

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Simulation of a block with a 'leg' like spring attached.Matt DemersSimple model for education and demonstrations showing how to define contact and bushings.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesExample set-up files 

 

OpenSim Example Models

Additional models used in examples and tutorials not included with the OpenSim distribution. These models are also maintained by the OpenSim team at Stanford.

Model Brief DescriptionAuthor(s)Intended Uses and Known LimitationsLicenseLast Updated

3.2 Compatible?

Included MaterialModel Forerunners

double_pendulum

 

A two body linkage systemAjay SethDemonstrates how to analyze the trajectory of a point on a body. See Point Kinematics ExampleCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesExample set-up and motion files 

Dynamic Walker Starter and Dynamic Walker Builder 

Model of a basic dynamic walkerDaniel JacobsDemonstrates how to build a dynamic walker, add many OpenSim model components, and run a simulation via Matlab scripting. See Dynamic Walking Challenge: Go the Distance! and From the Ground Up: Building a Passive Dynamic Walker ModelCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesExample data and model building scripts 

Dynamic Jumper Model

 

Modified gait2354 model for jumping simulations

Daniel Jacobs, Jeff Reinbolt, B.J. Fregly, Clay Anderson, Allison Arnold, Silvia Blemker, Darryl Thelen, and Scott Delp

Used to demonstrate dynamic optimization with OpenSim. The example additionally analyzes the effects of excitation signals on performance. See Sky High: Coordinating Muscles for Optimal Jump PerformanceCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesExample controls and motion datagait2354_simbody.osim

SeperateLegs

 

Two legs. 17 Degrees of freedom, 24 musclesScott L. DelpThis model was used in Tutorial 1 prior to OpenSim 3.2. As of OpenSim 3.2 it is no longer distributed and supported.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesWalking dataDelp Leg Model (SIMM)

BothLegs

 

Trunk, pelvis and leg segments. 10 degrees of freedom, 18 musclesScott L. DelpThis model was used in Tutorial 1 prior to OpenSim 3.2. As of OpenSim 3.2 it is no longer distributed and supported.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-13YesWalking data Delp Leg Model (SIMM)

 

User-Contributed Models

Models contributed by members of the OpenSim community. These models are developed and maintained by the authors listed, NOT the Stanford OpenSim team.

Model Brief DescriptionAuthor(s)Intended Uses and Known LimitationsLicenseUpdated

3.2 Compatible

Included MaterialModel Forerunners
Upper Extremity Dynamic Model A right upper extremity dynamic model representing the anthropometry and force-generating capacity of the 50th percentile male. Katherine Saul, Xiao Hu, Craig Goehler Meghan Vidt, Melissa Daly, Anca Velisar, Wendy MurrayResearch-grade kinematics and dynamic simulation of shoulder and arm movement.MIT July2014No (Compatible with 3.1)Detailed description of the model, two versions of the model (OpenSim and SIMM/SDFast compatible)Stanford VA Upper Limb Model

Lower limb model 2010

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Model Description

Lower limb model with updated musculoskeletal geometry for the lower limb based on experimental measurements of muscle architecture in 21 cadavers. Edith Arnold, Richard Lieber, Scott Ward, Scott DelpResearch-grade kinematics analysis, and simulation of 3-D locomotion and other movements. Results may be inaccurate during motions with high degrees of knee flexion. The model can be used for dynamics analyses, but computation speed will be slow due to the large number of wrapping surfaces.CustomSep-11YesDetailed description of model and adequate instructions for use. Custom Matlab code for generating SIMM muscle model.Arnoldetal2010_2Legsv2.1.osim,

Arnoldetal2009OneLeg (SIMM)

Delp leg Model (SIMM)

Full Body Running Model

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Model Description 

 

Legs, trunk and arm segments (with inertial properties). 37 degrees of freedom, 30 muscles of the lower body, torque actuated armsSam Hamner, Ajay Seth, Scott DelpResearch-grade kinematics analysis, dynamic analysis, and simulation of 3-D locomotion and other movements. Knee joint load estimates are known to be inaccurate during motions with high degrees of knee flexion. The upper body is simplified (minimal muscle actuation and torque-actuated arms).Custom. See the model's Simtk project page.Jul-10yesDetailed description of model and detailed instructions for use.

gait2392_simbody.osim

Upper and Lower Body Model Combination of the Delp Leg Model and Holzbaur Upper Limb ModelAndrea MenegoloProvide a starting model to those interested in a full body model.noneSep-11YesModel and brief descriptionDelp Leg Model,
Stanford VA upper limb Model
London Lower Limb model

Unilateral lower limb model based on the data set published by Klein Horsman et al., Clin Biomech, 2007. Includes pelvis and right leg bodies (with inertia) and 38 muscles (represented as 163 muscle actuators)Luca Modenese, Andrew PhillipsLower limb model implemented to estimate the contact forces occurring at the hip joint during activities of daily living. The model can be used for static optimization simulations without including the muscle force-length-velocity relation.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-11YesDescription and adequate instructional material. 
Custom Hip ModelModel based on Gait2392, Lower and trunk bodies (with inertia), updated muscle parameters matching previously published research.Kevin ShelburneResearch on motion and muscle function at the hip joint. Can be used for dynamics analysisCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Aug-10YesInstructional materialGait2392_simbody
Lumbar Spine ModelLumbar bodies and torso containing 3Dof and 238 muscle fascicles.Miguel Christophy, Nur Adila Faruk Senan, Moe CurtinResearch-grade kinematics analysis, and simulation. Due to no inertial properties for the bodies, this model is inappropriate for dynamics analysis. Only LumbarSpineC4 is usable in OpenSim 3.1.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Nov-10

No

(LumbarSpineC4 compatible)

Geometry, examples, editing instructions and Matlab code.LumbarSpineC210, LumbarSpineC4
Rat Hindlimb ModelA rat hindlimb musculoskeletal model including geometry (with interia) and muscle physiology. Will JohnsonResearch on Rat musculoskeletal kinematics and muscle functionCommons CCBBY 3.0Jan-09Yes  
Chimpanzee HindlimbA unilateral three dimensional musculoskeletal model of the chimpanzee pelvis and hind limb. Brian Umberger, Mathew O'Neill, Leng-Feng LeeModel used to estimate the force- and moment-generating capacity of the major pelvis and hind limb muscles in the chimpanzee.MIT licenseNov- 13YesModel, Geometry files. 

SIMM Models

Models contributed by members of the SIMM community as SimTK projects. These models are maintained by the authors listed.

Model(s) name Brief DescriptionAuthor(s)Intended Uses and Known Limitations LicenseUpdated3.2 CompatibleIncluded MaterialModel Forerunners
Delp Leg ModelA lower extremity model containing 7 segments and 7 degrees-of-freedom. Muscle lines of action for 43 muscle-tendon actuators are based on their anatomical relationships to three-dimensional surface representations of bones.. Scott DelpResearch-grade kinematics analysis, dynamic analysis, and simulation of 3-D lower limb motion. Inappropriate for dynamics analysis as bodies are massless. Due to no inertial properties for the bodies, this model is inappropriate for dynamics analysis.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-08YesExample data and instructions 

Lower limb Model 2010

This model updates the single leg Delp et al. (1990) model with validated muscle architecture, fiber length and tendon relationships, wrapping points and joint definitions. One-Leg, 7 segment, 7 degree-of-freedom model of the pelvis, femur, patella, tibia, calcaneus, talus, and toes.Edith Arnold, Richard Lieber, Scott ward, Scott L. Delp.Research-grade kinematics analysis, dynamic analysis, and simulation of 3-D lower limb motion and muscle functionCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-08NoDetailed description of model and adequate instructions for use. Custom Matlab code for generating SIMM muscle model.Delp leg Model (SIMM)
Deformable Femur ModelFemur model that can be altered to represent anteversion angles of 0-60°, neck-shaft angles of 110-150°, and/or neck lengths of 35-60 mm. The lesser trochanter torsion angle of the model can be adjusted by as much as 30° anteriorly or 10° posteriorly. Alison Arnold, Scott DelpResearch of muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms of individuals with a wide range of abnormalities and femoral deformitiesCreative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-08No Delp leg Model (SIMM)
Stanford VA upper limb ModelA experimentally derived model of the right upper extremity representing the shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, thumb, and index finger, and 50 muscle compartments crossing these joints. Katherine R Saul, Wendy M Murray, Scott DelpResearch-grade kinematics analysis of 3-D upper limb motion. Due to no inertial properties for the bodies, this model is inappropriate for dynamics analysis.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-08Yes  
Neck Mechanics ModelJoint and muscle files for an updated version of the neck musculoskeletal biomechanical model of the 50th percentile male.C7 was replaced by a copy of C6 for more representative bone geometry, and related muscle attachments and joints were altered to better reflect the altered bone geometry. Multifidus muscles were added into the muscle files.Anita Vasavada, Jessica Jahn, Liyang Zheng, Chiriac MarianKinematic research of head and neck motion. With specific applications for head movement control and injury mechanics. Due to no inertial properties of the bodies, this model is inappropriate for dynamics analysis.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Feb-09Yes neckjoints3dof (SIMM)
Wrist ModelJoint and muscle files for a 10 degree of freedom, 23 muscle, model of the lower arm.Robert Gonzalez, Thomas Buchanan, Scott DelpKinematic Research and Education of wrist and hand motion. Due to no inertial properties this model is Inappropriate for dynamics analysis.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Jul-08Yes  
Delft Shoulder Model Model derived from the Delft Shoulder and Elbow Model (DSEM). Used for the estimation of muscle and joint reaction forces in the shoulder and elbow complex.Ed Chadwick, Frans Van der Helm, Dirkjan Veeger, Robert Kirsch.Dimitra Blana, Joirs LambrechtModel of the upper extremity that allows users to perform Kinematic and Dynamic analysis of movement.Creative Commons CCBBY 3.0Mar-11Yes